Maurice Jones-Drew has rushed for the most yards in a game with at most 10 rush attempts, with 177 yards against the Titans on November 1, 2009.

nfl most rush yards in a game for a player, maximum 10 attempts
Interpreted as:
NFL most rush yards in a regular-season game for a player, maximum 10 rushing attempts
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Results may be incomplete. StatMuse has complete game-level data for rush attempts and rushing yards going back to the 1960 season.