Maurice Jones-Drew has rushed for the most yards in a game with at most 10 rush attempts, with 177 yards against the Titans on November 1, 2009.

nfl most rush yards in a game for a player, maximum 10 attempts
Interpreted as:
NFL most rush yards in a regular-season game for a player, maximum 10 rushing attempts
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11/1/2009Jones-Drew12/1/2002Vick10/5/1952McElhenny10/23/2016Hill10/8/1950Grimes11/21/1954Matson12/20/2014Kaepernick10/7/2007Turner10/22/1944Colella10/5/1997Broussard11/25/1979Harris10/28/1960Lowe12/2/2018Allen12/10/1950Perry11/16/2003Jones12/1/1946Reagan9/26/1999Biakabutuka11/11/1945Gehrke9/11/1938Krause12/10/2006Taylor12/19/2010Vick9/26/1949Trippi177173170168167163151147147138137137135135134133132132132131130130
Results may be incomplete. StatMuse has complete game-level data for rush attempts and rushing yards going back to the 1960 season.